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Do any performance issues arise during low ambient temperatures?

Generally low ambient temperatures do not affect an energized transformer. No-load losses on an energized transformer typically generate enough heat to operate effectively in temperatures to -20°C or lower.

The main issue with lower temperatures is when the unit is not energized. Extremely low temperatures or if the transformer heats up too quickly may cause welds and insulation to become brittle and crack, especially if the transformer experiences any mechanical stresses.

More importantly, low temperatures can cause moisture (dew, frost) to form on the unit. This can be absorbed into the insulation system and not be apparent.

If ambient goes below -30°C, special designs and cold start procedures may be necessary. Care should be taken to store transformers in dry areas with temperature control. Installation manuals typically suggest that transformers be tested (meggered), brought above 0°C and/or go through a dry-out process if moisture is suspected to be present.

Damage and injury can result from energizing a transformer which has had its insulation system compromised by moisture.

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